Determination of bulking of sand

What is Bulking of Fine aggregate (Sand)?

The increase in volume due to increase in moisture content is known as sand bulking. A film of water is formed around the sand particles, which forces the particles to receive one side from the other and thus the volume increases.

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Determination of the percentage bulking of Sand

Test standard : IS 2386-Part 3 : 1963

Test Apparatus :

  1. 250 ml measuring cylinder
  2. Hot air electric oven

Test Procedure :

  • Take a representative quantity of sample of fine aggregate (sand) by quartering method.
  • Dry the sample to constant weight in hot air electric oven. Cool the sample & divide the sample in fractions of 250 gms test samples by quartering method.
Determination of bulking of sand
  • Fill the measuring cylinder with 250gms of dry sample, consolidate by shaking & measure its height (say H0, ml). Remove the sample & again fill the cylinder with second fraction of same quantity of test sample prepared with 2 % moisture content.
  • Fill it again in measuring cylinder, consolidate by shaking & measure its height (say H2, ml). Repeat the same procedure by adding next fractions of test sample prepared with 4%, 6%, 8% moisture contents up-to its saturation point i.e between 20-30% & measure the height every time ( say H4, H6, H8….ml)
  • One fraction of test sample of 250gms shall also be filled in measuring cylinder & is saturated with water completely to fully submerge the sample. Measure the level of sample (say Hs, ml)

Bulking of aggregate at 0%, 2%, 4%………..moisture contents (%) = {(H0/Hs)-1} x100, {(H2/Hs)-} x100, {(H4/Hs)-1} x 100…………respectively.

Bulking of sand

Values of Bulking (%) shall be at corresponding values of moisture content in a graph so that at any value of moisture content we can find out the bulking factor.

Test Format :

Bulking of sand
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